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Sterols: 2. Oxysterols and Other Cholesterol Derivatives

Oxysterols as defined and discussed here are oxygenated derivatives of cholesterol and its precursors, i.e. with additional hydroxyl, epoxyl or keto groups, that are found in animal tissues and are important as short-lived intermediates or end products in the catabolism or excretion of cholesterol or in the biosynthesis of steroid hormones, bile acids and 1,25-dihydroxy-vitamin D3. They are normally present in biological membranes and lipoproteins at trace levels only, though they can exert profound biological effects at these concentrations. However, they are always accompanied by a great excess (as much as 106-fold) of cholesterol per se.

A number of different oxysterols are synthesised in cells by specific oxygenases. However, because of the presence of the double bond in the 5,6-position, oxysterols can be formed rapidly by non-enzymatic oxidation (autoxidation) of cholesterol and cholesterol esters within tissues with formation of a multiplicity of different oxygenated derivatives. Simplistically, non-enzymatic oxidation leads mainly to the generation of products in which the sterol ring system is oxidized, while enzymatic processes usually produce metabolites with an oxidized side chain (7-hydroxylation is an important exception). Oxidized cholesterol molecules can also be generated by the gut microflora and be taken up through the enterohepatic circulation. Once an oxygen function is introduced into cellular cholesterol, the product can act as a biologically active mediator by interacting with specific receptors before it is metabolized to bile acids or is degraded further, processes assisted by the fact that oxysterols are able to diffuse much more rapidly through membranes than is cholesterol itself. Cholesterol metabolites of this kind are especially important in brain as discussed below. For convenience, sterol sulfates and glycosides are also discussed in this web page.

1.  Enzymatic Oxidation of Cholesterol

7alpha-hydroxycholesterolWithin animal cells, oxidation of sterols is mainly an enzymic process that is carried out by several enzymes that are primarily from the cytochrome P450 family of oxygenases (named for a characteristic absorption at 450 nm). These are a disparate group of proteins that contain a single heme group and have a similar structural fold, though the amino acid sequences can differ appreciably. They are all mono-oxygenases, some of which are discussed at greater length in our web page relating to eicosanoid biosynthesis. As certain of these enzymes are specific to particular tissues, there is considerable variation in oxysterol distributions between organs. For example, a primary product is 7α-hydroxycholesterol, which is an important intermediate in the biosynthesis of bile acids, and it is produced in the liver by the action of cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase (CYP7A1), which has a critical role in cholesterol homeostasis. The reaction is under strict regulatory control, and any circulating 7α-hydroxycholesterol represents leakage from the liver. On the other hand, 7β-hydroxycholesterol is produced in brain by the action of the toxic β-amyloid peptide and its precursor on cholesterol, but whether this metabolite is involved in the pathology of Alzheimer’s disease has yet to be determined. The corticosteroid 11-beta-dehydrogenase isozyme 1 is responsible for the reversible interconversion of 7-keto- and 7β-hydroxy-cholesterol.

An alternative pathway to bile acids starts with 27-hydroxycholesterol, which is produced by another cytochrome P450 enzyme (CYP27A1), which introduces the hydroxyl group into the terminal methyl carbon (C-27). While this enzyme is present in the liver, it is found in many extra-hepatic tissues and especially the lung, which provides a steady flux of 27-oxygenated metabolites to the liver. In addition, as a multifunctional mitochondrial P450 enzyme in liver, it generates both 25R,26‑hydroxycholesterol and 3β-hydroxy-5-cholestenoic acid, which occur in small but significant amounts in plasma. 27-Hydroxycholesterol is the most abundant circulating oxysterol, and its concentration in plasma correlates with that of total cholesterol. 4β-Hydroxycholesterol is also abundant in plasma and is relatively stable; it is produced in humans by the action of the cytochromes CYP3A4 and CY3A5.

In humans, the specific cytochrome P450 that produces 24S-hydroxycholesterol (cholest-5-ene-3β,24-diol) is cholesterol 24S-hydroxylase (CYP46A1) and is located almost entirely in the smooth endoplasmic reticulum of neurons in the brain, including those of the hippocampus and cortex, which are important for learning and memory. It is responsible for 98-99% of the turnover of cholesterol in the central nervous system and for most of the 24S-hydroxycholesterol found in plasma. A small amount of it is converted in the brain directly into bile acid precursors (cholestanoic acids) by the cytochrome CYP39A1.

25-Hydroxycholesterol is a relatively minor but biologically important cholesterol metabolite, At least two cytochrome P450 enzymes, CYP27A1 and CYP3A4, catalyse the conversion of cholesterol in vitro, as does the dioxygenase enzyme cholesterol 25-hydroxylase. However, the relative importance of the different mechanisms of formation in vivo have still to be elucidated. Cholesterol autoxidation does not seem to be an important contributor.

24(S),25-Epoxycholesterol is not produced by the pathways described above but is synthesised in a shunt of the same mevalonate pathway that produces cholesterol, and by the action of CYP46A1 on desmosterol. It may represent a measure of newly synthesised cholesterol.

The oxysterols formed by both autoxidation and enzymatic routes can undergo further oxidation-reduction reactions, and they can be modified by many of the enzymes involved in the metabolism of cholesterol and steroidal hormones, such as esterification and sulfation of position 3, as illustrated for 7-keto-cholesterol as an example.

Metabolism of oxysterols

It is noteworthy that the important human pathogen, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, utilizes a cytochrome P450 enzyme (CYP125) to catalyse C26/C27 hydroxylation of cholesterol as an essential early step in its catabolism as part of the infective process.

Catabolism: Because of their increased polarity relative to cholesterol, oxysterols produced by both enzymatic and non-enzymatic means can exit cells relatively easily. Some are converted to inert sterol esters and are stored in this form, a proportion is further oxidized and converted to bile acids, and some are converted to sulfate esters (especially at the 3-hydroxyl group) or glucuronides (see below) for elimination via the kidneys.

2.  Non-Enzymatic Oxidation of Cholesterol

There is evidence that cholesterol in a membrane environment may be attacked more readily than the polyunsaturated fatty acids by reactive oxygen species (ROS), although the opposite is true in plasma. As examples of the main types of product of non-enzymatic oxidation, the structures of a few of the more important of these oxysterols are illustrated.

Structural formulae of oxysterols

Oxysterols produced by this means can vary in the type (hydroperoxy, hydroxy, keto, epoxy), number and position of the oxygenated functions introduced and in the nature of their stereochemistry. Derivatives with the A and B rings and the iso-octyl side-chain oxidized are illustrated, but compounds with oxygen groups in position 15 (D ring) are also important biologically. Usually, they are named according to their relationship to cholesterol, rather than by the strict systematic terminology.

Oxysterols occur in tissues both in the free state and esterified with long-chain fatty acids. For example, in human atherosclerotic lesions, 80–95% of all oxysterols are esterified. Appreciable amounts of oxysterols can be present in foods, especially those rich in cholesterol such as meat, eggs and dairy products, where they are most probably generated non-enzymically during cooking or processing when such factors as temperature, oxygen, light exposure, the associated lipid matrix, and the presence of antioxidants and water all play a part. Those present in foods can be absorbed from the intestines and transported into the circulation in chylomicrons, but the extent to which dietary sources contribute to tissue levels either of total oxysterols or of individual isomers is not known and is probably highly variable.

Mechanisms of autoxidation have been studied intensively in terms of unsaturated fatty acids, and it appears that similar mechanisms operate with sterols. The first event in lipid peroxidation is an initiation reaction in which a carbon with a labile hydrogen undergoes hydrogen abstraction by reaction with a free radical, which can be a non-lipid species such as a transition metal or hydroxyl or peroxynitrile radicals, and this is followed by oxygen capture. The resulting reactive species recruits further non-oxidized lipids and starts a chain reaction termed the propagation phase. Finally, the reaction is terminated by the conversion of hydroperoxy intermediates to more stable hydroxy products by reaction with endogenous antioxidants such as tocopherols.

As an example, the reaction mechanism leading to the production of 7-oxygenated cholesterol derivatives is illustrated. In aqueous dispersions, oxidation is initiated by a radical attack from a reactive-oxygen species with abstraction of hydrogen from the C-7 position to form a delocalized three-carbon allylic radical, which reacts with oxygen to produce the epimeric products 7α- and 7β-hydroperoxy-cholesterol. Subsequent enzymic and non-enzymic reactions lead to the 7-hydroxy and 7-keto analogues, which tend to be the most abundant non-enzymatically generated oxysterols in tissues, often accompanied by epoxy-ene and ketodienoic secondary products.

Examples of non-enzymic oxidation of cholesterol

Reaction does not occur readily at the other allylic carbon 4, presumably because of steric hindrance. When cholesterol is in the solid state, reaction occurs primarily at the tertiary carbon-25, though some products oxygenated at C-20 may also be produced.

Epimeric 5,6-epoxy-cholesterols may be formed by a non-radical reaction involving the non-enzymatic interaction of a hydroperoxide with the double bond, a process that is believed to occur in macrophages especially and in low-density lipoproteins (LDL). In this instance, the initial peroxidation product is a polyunsaturated fatty acid; the hydroperoxide transfers an oxygen atom to cholesterol to produce the epoxide, and in so doing is reduced to a hydroxyl. Other non-radical oxidation processes include reaction with singlet oxygen, which is especially important in the presence of light and photosensitizers and can generate 5-hydroxy- as well as 6- and 7-hydroxy products. Cholesterol-5,6-epoxides formed in this way are presently of interest in relation to cancer. In addition, reaction with ozone in the lung can generate a family of distinctive oxygenated cholesterol metabolites.

Photoxidation in the retina via the action of free radicals or singlet oxygen generates unstable cholesterol hydroperoxides, which may be involved in age-related macular degeneration. For example, these compounds can quickly be converted to highly toxic 7α- and 7β-hydroxycholesterols and 7-ketocholesterol, depending on the status of tissue oxidases and reductases. Three separate enzymatic pathways have developed in the eye to neutralize their activity. 7-Ketocholesterol is a major oxysterol produced during oxidation of low-density lipoproteins, and is one of the most abundant in plasma and atherosclerotic lesions. It has a high pro-apoptotic potential and associates preferentially with membrane lipid raft domains.

A diverse range of oxidation products are also generated by peroxidation of the cholesterol precursor 7-dehydrocholesterol, and these have important biological properties.

3.  Oxysterols – Biological Activity

General Functions: In tissues in vivo, the very low oxysterol:cholesterol ratio means that oxysterols have little impact on the primary role of cholesterol in cell membrane structure and function. Indeed, it is often argued that there are few reliable measurements of cellular or subcellular oxysterol concentrations, because of the technical difficulties in the analysis of the very low concentrations of oxysterols in the presence of a vast excess of native cholesterol; the average levels of 26-, 24- and 7α-hydroxy-cholesterol in human plasma that are often quoted are 0.36, 0.16 and 0.14 μM, respectively. Nonetheless, aside from their role as precursors of bile acids and some steroidal hormones, it is evident that oxysterols have a variety of roles in terms of maintaining cholesterol homeostasis and perhaps in signalling, where those formed enzymatically are most important. Autoxidation products of cholesterol, especially 7-keto- and 7-hydroxy-cholesterol, are cytotoxic and may be useful markers for oxidative stress.

While cholesterol plays a key role in its own feedback regulation, there is some evidence that oxysterols are regulators of cholesterol biosynthesis, and that 25‑hydroxycholesterol and 24(S),25‑epoxycholesterol may be especially effective, although the other side-chain oxysterols 24- and 27‑hydroxycholesterol are also implicated. Several mechanisms appear to be involved, and it is suggested that they that they act as ligands for liver X receptors (LXRs), which forms a heterodimer with the retinoic X receptor, to inhibit the transcription of key genes in cholesterol biosynthesis, as well as directly inhibiting or accelerating the degradation of such important enzymes in the process as HMG-CoA reductase and squalene synthase. In addition, several cell membrane receptors for oxysterols have been identified. 25-Hydroxycholesterol also inhibits transfer of the 'sterol regulatory element binding protein' (SREBP) to the Golgi. Oxysterols could smooth out the regulation of cholesterol metabolism, preventing exaggerated responses. However, experts in the field caution that it can be difficult to extrapolate from experiments in vitro to the situation in vivo, because of the rapidity with which cholesterol can autoxidize in experimental systems and because of the difficulty of carrying out experiments with physiological levels of oxysterols. Claims that oxysterols are master regulators of cholesterol homeostasis in vivo are now disputed.

Scottish thistle25-Hydroxycholesterol is reported to have a regulatory effect on the biosynthesis of sphingomyelin, which is required with cholesterol for the formation of raft sub-domains in membranes, and together with other oxysterols to regulate the activities of some hedgehog proteins involved in embryonic development. Infection with virus and bacterial pathogens such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis leads to production of type I interferon, and this induces synthesis of 25-hydroxycholesterol which exerts broad antiviral activity by activating integrated stress response genes and reprogramming protein translation. A metabolite, 7α,25‑dihydroxycholesterol, may have a role in the regulation of humoral immunity.

Oxysterols appear to be important for many aspects of cholesterol turnover and transport, and there have been many reports of involvement in disease processes, especially atherosclerosis and the formation of human atherosclerotic plaques, but also cytotoxicity, necrosis, inflammation, immuno-suppression, phospholipidosis and gallstone formation. Those oxysterols formed non-enzymatically are most troublesome in this regard. For example, they are enriched in pathologic cells and tissues, such as macrophage foam cells, atherosclerotic lesions, and cataracts. They may regulate some of the metabolic effects of cholesterol, but as cautioned above, effects observed in vitro may not necessarily be of physiological importance in vivo. Similarly, while it has been argued that plasma oxysterols could serve as markers of oxidative stress, the experimental difficulties in analysis have been such that their value has been limited. Sample handling remains a problem, but the newer methods of mass spectrometry with electrospray ionization now enable direct analysis of even the reactive hydroxy-, hydroperoxy- and ozonide-containing oxysterols.

Oxysterols in Brain: Oxysterols are especially important for cholesterol homeostasis in the brain, which contains 25% of the total body cholesterol, virtually all of it in unesterified form, in only about 2% of the body volume. Cholesterol is a major component of the plasma membrane especially, where it serves to control the fluidity and permeability. This membrane is produced in large amounts in brain and is the basis of the compacted myelin, which is essential for conductance of electrical stimuli and contains about 70% of the cholesterol in brain. While this pool is relatively stable, the remaining 30% is present in the membranes of neurons and glial cells of gray matter and is active metabolically. Even in the foetus and the newborn infant, all the cholesterol required for growth is produced by synthesis de novo in the brain not by transfer from the circulation across the blood-brain barrier, which consists of tightly opposed endothelial cells lining the extensive vasculature of the tissue. The fact that this pool of cholesterol in the brain is independent of circulating levels must reflect a requirement for constancy in the content of this lipid in membranes and myelin. In adults, although there is a continuous turnover of membrane, the cholesterol is efficiently re-cycled and has a remarkably high half-life (up to 5 years). The rate of cholesterol synthesis is a little greater than the actual requirement, so that net movement of cholesterol out of the central nervous system must occur. An important component of this system is apolipoprotein E (Apo E), a 39-kDa protein, which is highly expressed in brain and functions in cellular transport of cholesterol and in cholesterol homeostasis. Apo E complexes with cholesterol are required for transport from the site of synthesis in astrocytes to neurons.

Cholesterol and the brainIf cholesterol itself cannot cross the blood-brain barrier, its metabolite 24(S)‑hydroxycholesterol is able to do so with relative ease. When the hydroxyl group is introduced into the side chain, this oxysterol effects a local re-ordering of membrane phospholipids such that it is more favourable energetically to expel it, and this can occur at a rate that is orders of magnitude greater than that of cholesterol per se, though still only 3-7 mg per day. There is a continuous flow of this metabolite from the brain into the circulation, where it is transported by lipoprotein particles to the liver for further catabolism, i.e. it is hydroxylated in position 7 and then converted to bile acids.

Both 24(S)-hydroxycholesterol and 24(S),25-epoxycholesterol are believed to be important in regulating cholesterol homeostasis in the brain. They interact with the specific nuclear receptors involved in the expression and synthesis of proteins involved in sterol transport, and for example, 24‑hydroxy-cholesterol regulates the transcription of Apo E.

24(S)-Hydroxycholesterol down-regulates trafficking of the amyloid precursor protein and may be a factor in preventing neurodegenerative diseases. Especially high levels of 24(S)-hydroxycholesterol are observed in the plasma of human infants and in patients with brain trauma, while reduced levels are found in patients with neurodegenerative diseases, including multiple sclerosis and Alzheimer's disease. Increased expression of cholesterol 24-hydroxylase (CYP46A1) is believed to improve cognition, while a reduction leads to a poor cognitive performance.

In contrast, 7β-hydroxycholesterol is pro-apoptotic, but any links with Alzheimer's disease are unproven, although there is certainly a school of thought that considers oxidized cholesterol to be a major factor behind the development of Alzheimer's disease. Oxidation products of the cholesterol precursor 7-dehydrocholesterol are involved in the pathophysiology of the human disease Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome.

27-Hydroxycholesterol diffuses across the blood-brain barrier in the reverse direction from the blood stream into the brain, where it does not accumulate but is further oxidized and then exported as steroidal acids. This flux may regulate certain key enzymes within the brain, and there are suggestions that the balance between the levels of 24- and 27-hydroxy-cholesterol may be relevant to the generation of β-amyloid peptides. 27-Hydroxycholesterol is also an element in cholesterol elimination from macrophages and arterial endothelial cells. In addition, it is an endogenous ligand for the human nuclear estrogen receptor (ERα) and the liver X receptor (LXR), and it modulates their activities with effects upon various human disease states, including cardiovascular dysfunction, breast cancer progression and the regulation of bone mineralization.

4.  Sterol Sulfates

The strongly acidic sulfate ester of cholesterol (cholesterol 3-sulfate) occurs in all mammalian cells, but it is especially abundant in keratinized tissue such as skin and hooves. Although present at low levels, it can be the main sulfolipid in many cell types, but especially kidney, and reproductive and nervous tissues. In many organs, it appears to be concentrated in epithelial cell walls or in plasma membranes. Cholesterol sulfate is the main circulating sterol sulfate in plasma, although it is there accompanied by dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate and other steroidal sulfates. In addition, 7-ketocholesterol sulfate has been found in primate retina, while 24-hydroxycholesterol occurs in bovine brain as its sulfate ester, and 5-cholesten-3β,25-diol 3-sulfate has been detected in the nuclei of human liver cells. Sterol sulfates have been detected occasionally in lower life forms, such as the sea star, Asterius rubrius, and the marine diatom, Nitzschia alba.

Formula of cholesterol sulfateThe sulfate moiety is added to sterols from the sulfate donor, 3'-phosphoadenosine-5'-phosphosulfate, by a family of cytosolic sulfotransferases (SULTS), some of which are specific for particular sterols; SULT2B1b preferentially catalyses the conversion of cholesterol to cholesterol sulfate, for example. In turn, this can be de-sulfated by a microsomal sulfatase.

Cholesterol sulfate is especially important in skin where it may have a role in ensuring the integrity and adhesion of the various skin layers, while also regulating some enzyme activities. For example, it functions in keratinocyte differentiation, inducing genes that encode for key components involved in development of the barrier. Cholesterol sulfate is generated in normal epidermis by cholesterol sulfotransferase (SULT2B1b), but then is desulfated in the outer epidermis as part of a 'cholesterol sulfate cycle' that is a powerful regulator of epidermal metabolism and barrier function. It accumulates in the epidermis in the human genetic disorder X-linked ichthyosis. However, it is evident that the lipid may have many other functions, and it may play a part in cell adhesion, differentiation and signal transduction. In addition, it has a stabilizing role, for example in protecting erythrocytes from osmotic lysis and regulating sperm capacitation, and it can be metabolized to other steroidal sulfates. Although their functions in plasma are unknown, sterol sulfates are widely assumed to facilitate transport and perhaps excretion.

5-Cholesten-3β,25-diol 3-sulfate has been reported to have a variety of signalling and regulatory functions towards many aspects of lipid metabolism, inflammatory responses, and cell proliferation through its actions on nuclear receptors.

5.  Cholesterol Glycosides and Other Cholesterol Derivatives

Sterol glycosides are common constituents of plants (see our web page on plant sterols), and it has become evident that cholesteryl glucoside (1-O-cholesteryl-β-D-glucopyranoside) and less often acyl cholesteryl glucoside are also present in animal tissues. Both lipids were first found in the skin of snakes and birds, but cholesteryl glucoside occurs also in human plasma, fibroblasts and gastric mucosa, and some rat and mouse tissues, where it may act as a mediator of signal transduction in the early stages of heat stress. As with plant and fungal steryl glycosides, these have a sugar β-glucosidic linkage. Biosynthesis is believed to involve a transfer of glucose from glucosylceramide to cholesterol by means of cellular β-glucosidases. The reverse reaction also occurs and may be relevant to a putative function of cholesterol glucoside in cholesterol transport in plasma. In addition, a cholesterol-conjugate with glucuronic acid has been isolated from human liver (33 nmol/g wet tissue) and plasma, but its origin, function and metabolic fate are unknown. In embryonic chicken brain, cholesterol-β-glucoside is accompanied by sitosterylglucoside.

Some bacterial species contain cholesterol glycosides, synthesised from cholesterol derived from the membranes of host animals. For example, four unusual glycolipids, i.e. cholesteryl-α-glucoside, cholesteryl-6'-O-acyl-α-glucoside, cholesteryl-6'-O-phosphatidyl-α-glucoside, and cholesteryl-6'-O-lysophosphatidyl-α-glucoside, occur in the pathogenic bacterium Helicobacter pylori. The key enzyme involved in their biosynthesis is a membrane-bound, UDP-glucose-dependent cholesterol-α-glucosyltransferase.

Cholesterol 6-O-acyl-β-D-galactopyranoside and its non-acylated form are significant components of membranes of the tick-borne spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi, which is the causative agent of Lyme disease. Together with cholesterol, these lipids form raft microdomains with proteolipids in the membranes of the organism, which may permit it to sense environmental changes and adapt to the host. The cholesterol glycoside can be transferred back to the membranes of the host animal, where it may facilitate the infective process.

Formula of cholesterol 6-O-acylgalactoside from Borrelia burgdorferi

Cholesterol is found linked covalently to specific proteins, known as the hedgehog signalling family, where it functions to anchor the protein in a membrane, but this is discussed in our web page on proteolipids.

6.   Vitamin D

Vitamin D encompasses two main sterol metabolites that are essential for the regulation of calcium and phosphorus levels and thence for bone formation in animals. However, these have many other functions, including induction of cell differentiation, inhibition of cell growth, immunomodulation, and control of other hormonal systems. Vitamin D (with calcium) deficiency is responsible for the disease rickets in children in which bones are weak and deformed, and it is associated with various cancers and autoimmune diseases.

Vitamin D3

Ultraviolet light mediates cleavage of 7-dehydrocholesterol, an important intermediate in the biosynthesis of cholesterol, with opening of the second (B) ring in the skin to produce pre-vitamin D, which rearranges spontaneously to form the secosteroid vitamin D3 or cholecalciferol. The newly generated vitamin D3 is transported to the liver where it is subject to 25-hydroxylation and thence to the kidney for 1α-hydroxylation to form 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (calcitriol); this is a true hormone and serves as a high affinity ligand for the vitamin D receptor in distant tissues. For transportation in plasma, it is bound to a specific glycoprotein termed unsurprisingly, the 'vitamin D binding protein (BDP)'. Vitamin D2 or ergocalciferol is derived from ergosterol, which is obtained from plant and fungal sources in the diet.

Vitamin D3 functions by activating a cellular receptor (vitamin D receptor or VDR), a transcription factor binding to sites in the DNA called vitamin D response elements. There are thousands of such binding sites, which together with co-modulators regulate innumerable genes in a cell-specific fashion. In this way, it enhances bone mineralization through promoting dietary calcium and phosphate absorption, as well as having direct affects on bone cells. In addition, it functions as a general development hormone in many different tissues, while together with Vitamins D2 it has profound effects on immune responses.

7.   Steroidal Hormones and their Esters

These lipids cannot be discussed in depth here as it is a rather substantial and specialized topic. In brief, in addition to the bulk sterols, animal tissues produce small amounts of vital steroidal hormones, including oestrogens and progesterone, which are made primarily in the ovary and placenta during pregnancy, and testosterone mainly in the testes (the structure of pregnenolone is illustrated below as an example). Pregnane neurosteroids are produced in the central nervous system. Conversion of cholesterol to pregnenolone in mitochondria is the rate-limiting step and involves first hydroxylation and then cleavage of the side-chain.

Typical steroids and steroid esters

Steroidal esters accumulate in tissues such as the adrenal glands, which synthesise corticosteroids such as cortisol and aldosterone and are responsible for releasing hormones in response to stress and other factors. It is also apparent that fatty acyl esters of estradiols, such as dehydroepiandrosterone, accumulate in adipose tissue in post-menopausal women. Small amounts of estrogens acylated with fatty acids at the C-17 hydroxyl are present in the plasma lipoproteins. In each instance they appear to be biologically inert storage or transport forms of the steroid. Eventually, esterified steroids in low density lipoproteins (LDL) particles are taken up by cells via lipoprotein receptors, and then are hydrolysed to release the active steroid.

There is currently great pharmaceutical interest in oleoyl-estrone, a naturally occurring hormone in humans, which was found to induce a marked loss of body-fat while preserving protein stores in animals, a desirable goal for an anti-obesity drug as body protein loss is an unwanted side effect of fat loss via calorie restriction.

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Lipid listings Credits/disclaimer Updated: June 5th, 2017 Author: William W. Christie LipidWeb icon