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Credits and Disclaimers


Mission statement: The LipidWeb is an open access website, which is intended to be a major online source of information on lipid science and technology. It is freely available to scientists, technologists, students and laymen everywhere.

This website is owned and managed by William (Bill) W. Christie, who is the sole author of these pages.

He can be contacted by email at

We will usually grant all reasonable requests for permission for figures in these documents to be used elsewhere for non-profit-making purposes, provided the source is acknowledged, but the copyright is retained by the author. Formal requests should be sent to the author.

Many of these web pages are new, and the rest have been substantially rewritten and updated in comparison to my obsolete versions in the AOCS Lipid Library.

Many thanks to -

I am indebted to the James Hutton Institute (formerly the Scottish Crop Research Institute) and the Mylnefield Lipid Analysis, Invergowrie, Dundee, Scotland (DD2 5DA) for providing the library and laboratory facilities that made these mass spectrometry pages possible.

Scottish thistleMost of the spectra here were obtained as part of research programmes funded by the Scottish Executive Environment and Rural Affairs Department. I am grateful to Elizabeth Brechany of the Hannah Research Institute (Ayr) and Graeme Robertson of the James Hutton Institute (JHI) who were in charge of the mass spectrometers in these places and provided much more than technical support. Similarly, Gary Dobson, Tom Shepherd and Charlie Scrimgeour of the JHI contributed substantially to my research work. Jack Hamilton of the Food Science Division (Department of Agriculture for Northern Ireland, Belfast) rescued many of my mass spectrometry files from an obsolete storage medium, and has been an invaluable collaborator. Many colleagues and scientific collaborators contributed to our research efforts in this area and they will be cited in these pages. However, I must especially mention R.T. Holman (U.S.A.), M.S.F. Lie Ken Jie (Hong Kong), R.L. Wolff (France), J.L. Sébédio (France), Y.-G. Joh (Korea), N. Tsevegsuren (Mongolia) and K. Stefanov (Bulgaria). Samples and other spectra have been generously donated by many others and these are acknowledged in appropriate places, but I must especially thank Isabel Molina (Algoma University, Sault Ste Marie, ON, Canada), and Mike Pollard and John Ohlrogge (Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, USA).

Technical aspects: All the mass spectra illustrated in these pages were obtained by electron-impact ionization at an ionization potential of 70 eV on quadrupole mass spectrometers, either Agilent (Hewlett Packard) Mass Selective Detectors or their MS Engine. Mass spectra were output from the Agilent instrument software as Windows metafiles, and then annotated using Metafile Companion™ ( Chemical formulae were drawn with ChemWindows™ (SoftShell International Ltd).

The basic design of the web pages was adapted from a free template ("Variant-duo") from, who retain the copyright for the original design. MicrosoftTM Expression Web and CoffeecupTM were used as the HTML editors to prepare the web pages on this site. Some clipart icons were freeware or adapted from freeware.

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The LipidWeb and the author reserve the right to modify and cancel any statement in these documents and regret that they cannot accept any responsibility for the consequences of any such changes. To the best of our knowledge all information is correct, but we cannot accept liability for any errors.

Please note! Many of the procedures used in the analysis of lipids require the use of solvents and other hazardous materials. Analysts must take appropriate precautions as we cannot accept any responsibility for accidents that may occur while using methods described in these web pages.

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Updated: February 3rd, 2017